The number of 2 minute intervals coded for each variable related to sexual minorities was summed across the intervals in an episode to gauge the frequency dildo cam with which same sex sexual behavior and talk about nonheterosexual sexual issues occurred within each program episode for purposes of reliability assessment. This summing triggered converting nominal data (for example., presence/absence) during the 2 minute interval degree into regularity counts during the program level (range periods by which sex that is same behavior took place in the episode). Consequently, the dependability analyses utilized the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The ICC is an evaluation associated with percentage of variance within the measures owing to coder agreement corrected for opportunity. For period information for instance the regularity matters utilized right right right here, the ICC is the same as Krippendorf’s alpha (Krippendorf, 1980).
An ICC of .70 had been utilized while the criterion for appropriate dependability. Both products utilized to measure the presence of nonheterosexual themes considerably surpassed this criterion. The ICC for exact exact same intercourse behavior that is sexual .97 in 12 months 1 and .99 in 12 months 2. The ICC for speak about nonheterosexual intimate dilemmas had been .89 in 12 months 1 and .95 in 12 months 2.
To resolve the initial group of research concerns about the prevalence of nonheterosexual product on tv, we utilized episode degree data ( e.g., percentages of episodes containing sex that is same behavior and containing explore intercourse linked to nonheterosexuals) and chi square analyses to look at between team distinctions with one of these nominal information. For the 2nd group of research concerns, we utilized just those implies that included nonheterosexual sexual content and evaluated their regularity across 2 moment periods ( ag e.g., wide range of periods each hour of system time with nonheterosexual intimate talk). For those analyses, we used t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) to try team distinctions. Significant omnibus F tests had been followed up with post hoc comparisons making use of Tamhane’s T2 test, which will not assume equal cellular size or equal variance, to determine significant distinctions across teams.
Results.Prevalence of Nonheterosexual Sexual Content
About one in six programs within our examples included any content that is sexualbehavior or talk) pertaining to nonheterosexuals. The increase that is slight nonheterosexual intimate content from the 2001 2002 season (14.5%) to your 2002 2003 period (17.4%) ended up being significant, П‡ 2 (1, N = 2715) = 4.15, p Table 1 shows the portion of indicates that contained any exact same intercourse intimate behavior and any intimate talk regarding nonheterosexuals by system genres, by variety of community, and also by time of day aired. For community kind, the 11 channels had been categorized into certainly one of three groups: commercial broadcast (including the 3 major sites ABC, CBS, and NBC along with Fox, UPN, and WB), cable music activity (including BET and MTV), and premium cable film (including Cinemax, HBO, and Showtime). With regards to time of time broadcast, shows airing between 3:00 and 8:00 p.m. had been categorized as late evening that is afternoon/early those shown between 8:00 and 11:00 p.m. were classified as prime time.
Note: Within form of community and time of day aired, percentages in the exact same line that don’t share subscripts vary at p Table 1 ). More often than not, there clearly was a high level of communication between a genre’s general positioning for same sex intimate behavior and speak about nonheterosexual intimate dilemmas. Furthermore, genres’ standings on both these factors had been fairly stable over the two tv periods.
Three genres were regularly lower in both types of nonheterosexual sexual content: Children’s cartoons (none of which contained sexual behavior or intimate talk associated with nonheterosexuals in a choice of 12 months), news publications (0% for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 3.2per cent and 6.5%, respectively, for behavior and talk in 12 months 2), and talk programs (0 and 3.0percent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 2.2 and 8.9per cent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk for year 2). 3 Genres that tended to own the greatest proportions of programs with nonheterosexual content had been variety/comedy and film that is feature. Created for television films and programs classified as вЂњotherвЂќ additionally had reasonably high proportions with nonheterosexual intimate content; nonetheless, both these groups included only only a few programs (letter = 7), rendering it hard to draw conclusions about them. Consequently, although we consist of these second two genres within the tables, we try not to emphasize the findings connected with them.